has slightly different meanings in different contexts. It concerns the flow of knowledge, experience and materials from one partner to another. It can be horizontal, meaning the transfer of an established technology from one organisation to another to adapt and apply, or vertical, meaning the transfer of the outputs of R&D to application and commercialisation. It can be formal (licensed transfer of technologies) or informal (exchange of knowledge, skills and experience)
is the ability of people or organisations to manage their affairs and reach objectives successfully
Many companies, universities and governmental organizations now have Technology Transfer Offices (TTO), dedicated to identifying research which has potential commercial interest and strategies for how to exploit it
is an established plan within an organisation that maps out capacity gaps and needs, requirements for efficient absorption of provided capacity, and plans for assessment of the success of capacity-building activities
can be seen as incorporating a wide range of activities aimed at addressing gaps in the ability of institutions to produce, manage, use, implement and scale up their research endeavours. It is strengthening the ability of an institution to carry out its key functions. Capacity is understood as the ability of people, organisations and society to manage their affairs successfully whilst technology transfer is a term used to describe the processes by which technological knowledge, in its various forms, moves within or between organisations.
sharing that results from sustainable research and innovation. It helps in addressing gaps in the ability of institutions to produce, manage, use, implement and scale up their research endeavours. It also enables partners to identify where the gaps might be and to determine how best to fill them to maximise what works.
to identify where the gaps might be and to determine how best to fill them in order to maximise what works.
among research partners as an asset for sustainable research and innovation. It focuses on ways in which low and middle income partners can negotiate for greater commitment to building capacity for long-term development.
The Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) structures its research capacity strengthening activities according to the needs of each country/institution. TDR works on the principle that to achieve long-term outcomes, what is needed are comprehensive capacity-building programmes that provide continuing professional development, support, and an enabling environment, rather than scientific training alone. Research capacity strengthening (RCS) is both explicit and embedded in its programmes: “Everything we do is RCS, and we try not to waste any opportunities. Even if a scientific research project is being funded in the north, then we will try to bring in a fellowship for someone from the south” (Ghaffar, IJsselmuiden & Zicker, 2008, pp. 64-65).
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